Laser-light scattering (LLS) on polar ice, or on polar ice meltwater, is an accepted method for measuring the concentration of water-insoluble aerosol deposits (dust) in the ice. LLS on polar ice can also be used to measure water-soluble aerosols, as well as imperfections (air bubbles and cavities) in the ice. LLS was originally used for measuring the dust concentration in polar ice meltwater, but was later also applied to solid ice for measuring the dust concentration profile along the deep, bubble-free …
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