2008 **Abstract:** Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a significant amount of variance over and above the more general predictors (26%–42%). Uniquely predictive subareas were active memory for numbers, number knowledge, and num…

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“…It seems that object counting fluency remains rather stable between different skill-level groups ; 6 year old kindergarteners were followed for 5 years). Also, early number competence including both verbal counting and object counting as well as other numerical skills is found to highly predict later mathematics achievement at school (Jordan et al, 2007;Mazzocco & Thompson, 2005), and more specifically calculation fluency (Locuniak & Jordan, 2008) as well as applied problem solving…”

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“…It seems that object counting fluency remains rather stable between different skill-level groups ; 6 year old kindergarteners were followed for 5 years). Also, early number competence including both verbal counting and object counting as well as other numerical skills is found to highly predict later mathematics achievement at school (Jordan et al, 2007;Mazzocco & Thompson, 2005), and more specifically calculation fluency (Locuniak & Jordan, 2008) as well as applied problem solving…”

“…Understanding of ordinal numbers and the ability to order sets of objects predict later math achievement (Duncan et al, 2007) and, more specifically, counting fluency (Koponen, Aunola, Ahonen, & Nurmi, 2007), so ordering tasks were added to the second version of GGM. Finally, early numerical competence (i.e., a sense of quantities and numbers) predicts calculation fluency (Locuniak & Jordan, 2008) and applied problem solving skills (recently Jordan, Kaplan, Ramineni, & Locuniak, 2009). For this reason, various types of comparison tasks were included in GGM (e.g., non-symbolic and symbolic approximate and exact comparison tasks, such as more / less, the most / the least, one more / one less, two more / two less).…”

“…Hence, mathematic competencies in early childhood are a strong predictor for later mathematic performance (Locuniak & Jordan, 2008). Aunola, Leskinen, Lerkkanen and Nurmi (2004) also found that children who show a higher level of arithmetic skills from the beginning have a much higher increase in their following arithmetic development.…”

“…Basic counting and enumerations skills are predictive of later arithmetical competence in England, Finland, Flanders, USA, Canada and Taiwan respectively (Aubrey & Godfrey, 2003;Aunola et al, 2004;Desoete et al, 2009;Jordan et al, 2007;LeFevre et al, 2006;Yang & Li, 2008), indicating a cross culturally common phenomenon. In similar vein, the ability to identify missing numbers and discriminate between quantities are also predictors of later success (Chard et al, 2005;Clarke & Shinn, 2004;, as is competence with number combinations (Geary, et al, 2000;2009;Locuniak & Jordan, 2008). In short, there is evidence highlighting the significance of the different FoNS components in children's learning of mathematics.…”