2015
DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2015.159
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Abstract: Nearly 50% of India's population depends on variants of pit-toilet systems for human waste disposal.Nitrate contamination of groundwater by pit-toilet leachate is a major environmental concern in the country as it sources a major proportion (50-80%) of potable water from aquifers. Therefore, minimizing nitrate contamination of groundwater due to leachate infiltration from pit-toilet systems is essential. Batch and column experiments demonstrated the capability of bentoniteenhanced sand (BES) specimens to reduc… Show more

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Cited by 5 publications
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“…The effluent had completely attenuated microorganisms and phosphate, while nitrate removal average efficiency was 42%. Similarly, Rao & Malini (2015) demonstrated heterotrophic denitrification capability of bentonite-enhanced sand PRB by reducing nitrate concentration by 85-90% in batch and column tests. Rao et al (2018) also successfully field-tested a modified twin-pit toilet that used a bio-barrier constructed using sand, gravel and cattle manure mixers to facilitate denitrification reactions (see supplementary Table S1).…”
Section: Permeable Reactive Barriersmentioning
confidence: 85%
“…The effluent had completely attenuated microorganisms and phosphate, while nitrate removal average efficiency was 42%. Similarly, Rao & Malini (2015) demonstrated heterotrophic denitrification capability of bentonite-enhanced sand PRB by reducing nitrate concentration by 85-90% in batch and column tests. Rao et al (2018) also successfully field-tested a modified twin-pit toilet that used a bio-barrier constructed using sand, gravel and cattle manure mixers to facilitate denitrification reactions (see supplementary Table S1).…”
Section: Permeable Reactive Barriersmentioning
confidence: 85%