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“…CFR is the ratio of maximal hyperemic to basal peak flow in a target vessel [3]. In the cardiac catheterization laboratory, a Doppler wire can measure blood flow velocity, a surrogate marker of blood flow, based on the equation Volumetric flow ¼ meancross À sectional flow velocity  vessel area using the assumption that vessel area is relatively unchanged during hyperemia [4]. Early studies of CFR in humans and animals with normal coronary arteries reported absolute CFR values from 3.5 to 5, and further studies have shown that CFR values of <2.0 correlate with reversible myocardial perfusion defects (sensitivity, 86-92%; specificity, 89-100%; and predictive accuracy, 89-96%) [2].…”
Section: Coronary Flow Reservementioning
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“…CFR is the ratio of maximal hyperemic to basal peak flow in a target vessel [3]. In the cardiac catheterization laboratory, a Doppler wire can measure blood flow velocity, a surrogate marker of blood flow, based on the equation Volumetric flow ¼ meancross À sectional flow velocity  vessel area using the assumption that vessel area is relatively unchanged during hyperemia [4]. Early studies of CFR in humans and animals with normal coronary arteries reported absolute CFR values from 3.5 to 5, and further studies have shown that CFR values of <2.0 correlate with reversible myocardial perfusion defects (sensitivity, 86-92%; specificity, 89-100%; and predictive accuracy, 89-96%) [2].…”
Section: Coronary Flow Reservementioning
“…CFR is measured in the cardiac catheterization laboratory using a 12-MHz piezoelectric transducer mounted on a guidewire and directed distal to the lesion, where laminar flow is reestablished. Following baseline coronary blood flow measurements, hyperemic coronary velocity is measured following induction of coronary hyperemia with intravenous or intracoronary adenosine, adenosine triphosphate, papaverine, or selective adenosine 2A agonists [4]. Clinically, CFR has been used to assess the hemodynamic severity of intermediate coronary lesions (40-70% of diameter stenosis), to predict prognosis of coronary stent implantation, and to predict the recovery of ventricular wall motion and remodeling following infarction [5] and angioplasty [3].…”
Section: Coronary Flow Reservementioning
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