The present study evaluated the water quality of a polluted pond through the analysis of in vitro mucociliary transport, hematological parameters, and biomarkers of cyto-genotoxicity in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Blood and mucus samples were collected from ten specimens from the polluted pond and from ten specimens from a control area. The fish were anesthetized with 3% benzocaine, mucus was collected directly from the gills, and blood was drawn from the caudal artery. Blood smears were stained using the May-Grünwald Giemsa process for the differential leukocyte counts and to determine the frequency of leukocytes, thrombocytes, erythroblasts, micronuclei, and nuclear abnormalities. The results revealed low transportability in vitro, a high percentage of monocytes and eosinophils, and increased frequency of leukocytes and nuclear abnormalities in fish from the polluted pond. However, the frequency of thrombocytes and erythroblasts and the percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils were significantly lower. It is possible to conclude that changes in fish are due to poor water quality and that these non-destructive biomarkers can be used for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments vulnerable to contamination.