Three-dimensional models of the uplift of Beta Regio caused by a mantle plume satisfy constraints on gravity, topography, rheology, and the uplift rate substantially better than two-dimensional models. In particular, the uplift time of Beta Regio is reduced to an acceptable 800 million years. Three-dimensional models give the plume formation depth around 3000 km, which approximately corresponds to the core-mantle boundary. The results depend only weakly on the initial lithospheric thickness (at the time o…
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