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“…In the first set of mutants, we disrupted the two long loops identified in the β-helix of α 43a as protruding from the β-spine (SI Appendix, Fig. S5) by deleting residues in loop 1 (L1, 37 LELGPDSDENT 47 ) and loop 2 (L2, 141 AEGGPESENVS 151 ) and leaving G36/G48/G49 and G140/ S152/G153 to link the contiguous β-strands, respectively. Two Ag43a single-loop deletion mutants (ΔL1 and ΔL2) and a double-loop deletion mutant (ΔL1,L2) were constructed, expressed in E. coli MS427, and tested in cell-aggregation assays.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…Uncomplicated UTIs typically affect individuals who are otherwise healthy and have no structural or neurological abnormalities, and are differentiated into lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (pyelonephritis). Complicated UTIs are associated with factors that compromise the urinary tract or host defence, including renal failure, urinary retention, pregnancy and the presence of urethral catheters [91,92]. UPEC has the ability to bind directly to kidney cells and bladder epithelium.…”
Section: Urogenital Systemmentioning
“…5 Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Serratia and Morganella morgagni are isolated from 75-95% cases of uncomplicated UTI which is most common in young, sexually active, non pregnant, premenopausal women. 6 The remaining cases are associated with a variety of organisms, including the Gram positive bacteria like Enterococcus, Staphylococcus especially coagulase negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae and other less frequently isolated organisms. 7 However, Gram positive bacteria are found more often as etiologic agents in vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and the elderly.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…[1] Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories, but the majority of the urine culture yield clinically insignificant results. [2] The diagnosis of UTI is primarily based on signs and symptoms rather than isolated laboratory findings; importantly, bacteriuria is not a disease thus, the collection and interpretation of urine cultures should be based on the clinical scenario.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Pretreatment urine cultures are performed to confirm the diagnosis of UTI and to provide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens involved. Although generally not required in cases of acute, uncomplicated cystitis [4], urine culture is still considered as standard of care in pyelonephritis, pregnant women, and men. Not surprisingly, urine cultures are among the most frequent culture analyses performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory [5].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning