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“…Among them, New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) and shield method are being used mainly. In tunnel construction site in Japan, the NATM is also being adopted for tunnel construction not only in mountains but also in urban areas [1]- [2]. In the construction process of the NATM, after excavating natural ground through after undergoing geological investigation such as boring, then shotcrete, a primary lining to fix the natural ground, is applied immediately.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Among them, New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) and shield method are being used mainly. In tunnel construction site in Japan, the NATM is also being adopted for tunnel construction not only in mountains but also in urban areas [1]- [2]. In the construction process of the NATM, after excavating natural ground through after undergoing geological investigation such as boring, then shotcrete, a primary lining to fix the natural ground, is applied immediately.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…32 and 7. 33 for a shallow and a deep tunnels. In both of the cases, the reduction in tunnel convergences is significant, as it's shown that the only ground deformation restricted in the tunnel face area and not extended backwards, as it happens in cases of an unsupported tunnel face.…”
Section: Effect Of the Tunnel Face Reinforcement By Fiberglass Nails In The Reduction Of The Tunnel Convergencementioning