HighlightsThe authors discuss the concept of atrial myopathy; its relationship to aging, electrophysiological remodeling, and autonomic remodeling; the interplay between atrial myopathy, AF, and stroke; and suggest how to identify patients with atrial myopathy and how to incorporate atrial myopathy into decisions about anticoagulation.Atrial myopathy seen in animal models of AF and in patients with AF is the result of a combination of factors that lead to electrical and structural remodeling in the atrium. Although AF may lead to the initiation and/or progression of this myopathy, the presence of AF is by no means essential to the development or the maintenance of the atrial myopathic state.Methods to identify atrial myopathy include atrial electrograms, tissue biopsy, cardiac imaging, and certain serum biomarkers. A promising modality is 4-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance. The concept of atrial myopathy may help guide oral anticoagulant therapy in selected groups of patients with AF, particularly those with low to intermediate risk of strokes and those who have undergone successful AF ablation. This review highlights the need for prospective randomized trials to test these hypotheses.