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“…However, several hind limb muscles span multiple joints and studies exploring the role of bi-articular muscles in locomotion have shown that significant energy may be transferred between proximal and distal joints (Bobbert et al, 1986;Jacobs et al, 1996;Prilutsky and Zatsiorsky, 1994;Prilutsky et al, 1996). In activities such as sprinting, jumping and landing, in which substantial net mechanical work must be done on the center of mass (CoM) of the body, energy passes from distal to proximal joints during the braking phase of stance and from proximal to distal joints in the propulsive phase (Jacobs et al, 1996;Prilutsky and Zatsiorsky, 1994).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…However, several hind limb muscles span multiple joints and studies exploring the role of bi-articular muscles in locomotion have shown that significant energy may be transferred between proximal and distal joints (Bobbert et al, 1986;Jacobs et al, 1996;Prilutsky and Zatsiorsky, 1994;Prilutsky et al, 1996). In activities such as sprinting, jumping and landing, in which substantial net mechanical work must be done on the center of mass (CoM) of the body, energy passes from distal to proximal joints during the braking phase of stance and from proximal to distal joints in the propulsive phase (Jacobs et al, 1996;Prilutsky and Zatsiorsky, 1994).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Similar patterns are also observed in the dog forelimb biarticular Tr LONG , which shortens when active early in stance during level trotting (−15.0%) and galloping (−16.3%; Gregersen et al, 1998). Thus, counter to biomechanical analyses of humans (Lichtwark and Wilson, 2006;Prilutsky and Zatsiorsky, 1994;van Ingen Schenau, 1990) and in vivo measurements of cat (Prilutsky et al, 1996), turkey, wallaby, and goat distal hind limb muscles (discussed above), indicating that biarticular muscles primarily transfer energy between adjacent joints rather than performing net work, the fascicle strain and activation patterns of goat and dog Tr LONG indicate that this forelimb biarticular muscle contributes significant positive work during level locomotion. In contrast, the mono-articular goat Tr LAT likely absorbs and then produces energy during stance.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Most of the distal limb muscles are multiarticular; thus, the high sensitivity of distal joint mechanics to limb posture supports this idea (Daley et al, 2007). Multiarticular muscles also transfer energy between joints (Bobbert et al, 1986;Prilutsky et al, 1996;McGowan et al, 2007).…”
Section: Regional Patterns Of Muscle Work In Relation To Joint Workmentioning
“…Transfer of energy via biarticular muscles has been demonstrated during jumping or sprinting actions (Bobbert et al, 1986;van Ingen Schenau et al, 1994;Jacobs et al, 1996). However, it also occurs during steady locomotion in cats (Prilutsky et al, 1996) and wallabies (McGowan et al, 2007), and likely other animals. In cats and wallabies considerable net work appears at the ankle joint during .…”
Section: Regional Patterns Of Muscle Work In Relation To Joint Workmentioning
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