1974
DOI: 10.1001/archderm.110.6.868
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Topical photosensitizers. Influence of vehicles on penetration

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Cited by 10 publications
(4 citation statements)
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“…No other coal liquefaction-derived materials have been evaluated in this assay; how-ever, there is evidence to suggest that crude shale oils and possibly crude petroleum oils may exhibit phototoxic properties (14). Materials derived from distillation of coal have been reported as phototoxic in humans (4)(5)(6) and in animals (8,9,(15)(16)(17). Crude coal tar is commonly used as a positive control material for phototoxicity studies.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…No other coal liquefaction-derived materials have been evaluated in this assay; how-ever, there is evidence to suggest that crude shale oils and possibly crude petroleum oils may exhibit phototoxic properties (14). Materials derived from distillation of coal have been reported as phototoxic in humans (4)(5)(6) and in animals (8,9,(15)(16)(17). Crude coal tar is commonly used as a positive control material for phototoxicity studies.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The literature and tables contain inherent suggestions that equivalent 8-MOP activity of less than 0.01% may be below the induction threshold of irritation to humans. Other parameters that affect the induction of phototoxic irritation, such as age, metabolic alteration, penetration into the skin, have been dealt with elsewhere and should be considered in making formulatory decisions (Kaidbey and Kligman, 1974;Harber, 1981;Addo et al, 1982). Oral and parenteral materials may require alteration by metabolic enzymes for expression of their phototoxic potential.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Everett and Miller 1961 When Coal Tar solution (USP) and UV light were applied to the skin of five adult males, erythema was greater in the tar-free areas than the tar-exposed areas. Kaidbey and Kligman 1974b The intensity of the phototoxic response to Coal Tar was strongly influenced by the vehicle, with vanishing cream producing the greatest reaction (erythema and minimal edema). Kaidbey and Kligman 1975 When 40 μl of a 25% Coal Tar distillate was applied to the skin of adult males irradiated with UVA alone, the epidermis was largely unaffected except for occasional intercellular edema.…”
Section: Starke and Jillson 1961mentioning
confidence: 99%