Abstract:Bi–material atomic force microscope cantilevers have been used extensively over the last 15 years as physical, chemical, and biological sensors. As a thermal sensor, the static deflection of bi–material cantilevers due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the two materials has been used to measure temperature changes as small as 10−5 K, heat transfer rate as small as 40 pW, and energy changes as small as 10 fJ. Bi–material cantilevers have also been use to measure “heat transfer - di… Show more
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