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citations
Cited by 100 publications
(56 citation statements)
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References 27 publications
(56 reference statements)
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“…Several peptide growth hormones including EGF and IGF-1 activate the receptor in a variety of cell types and in vivo (13)(14)(15)(16). In this study, we demonstrate that the ER mediates the inhibition of migration by 24-kDa FGF-2 in both endothelial cells and MCF-7 cells and that these forms of the growth factor can activate the ER leading to the transactivation of a reporter gene.…”
mentioning
confidence: 73%
“…The activation of the ER by a peptide growth hormone is not unusual; direct evidence for peptide growth factor activation of the ER has been obtained in multiple cell types (13)(14)(15)(16) and in ER knockout animals (42). Transforming growth factor-␣ or EGF treatment of HeLa, Ishikawa (endometrial), and BG-1 (ovarian) cells transiently transfected with ER-responsive target genes results in the dose-dependent activation of theER in an estrogen-independent manner (38).…”
Section: -Kda Fgf-2 Activates the Estrogen Receptormentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…First, ER␣ could elicit some of the downstream effects in a ligand-independent manner. Although data supporting the importance of this mechanism in vivo are scarce, several observations in cultured cells established the significance of this pathway in dynamic regulation of transcription by ER␣ (17)(18)(19). In the absence of estrogen, ER␣ can modulate expression of selected genes by recruiting both transcriptional repressors and activators as well as by remodeling chromatin structure (17,20).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In some tissues IGF-I modulates estrogen receptor levels and estrogens regulate the production of IGF-I, its receptors and the IGFBPs (17, 19 -21). In addition, synergistic effects and cross-reactivity, with one factor activating or requiring the presence of receptors of the other, have been demonstrated in certain cell types (16,18). Sex steroids and IGF-I have also been reported to have numerous points of interaction in their intracellular signaling mechanisms in many tissues (5,22).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%