Abstract: This article explores salient aspects of the therapeutic relationship, including transference, nontransference (the “real” relationship), and empathic attunement. Evidence for a mirror neuron system mediating empathy in primates and humans is presented. A clinical illustration describes the interplay between impaired early attachment, developmental experience, psychopathology, mirror neuron dysfunction, and the role of empathic attunement toward facilitating clinical improvement.
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