Bone fracture toughness has been well studied, however, it is also important to investigate the effect of preservative treatment on the mechanical properties of bones. It is necessary to evaluate crack initiation and propagation after fracture because this process may be different in the case of injured bone tissues. In this study, we attempted to analyze the strain distribution on bone tissue surface by using image correlation techniques in order to elucidate the relationship between microscopic bone damage and strain distribution. Bovine femoral cortical bone was employed as the bone specimen and the three-point bend test method was used to determine the fracture toughness, in accordance with the ASTM E399 guidelines. An Instron type machine was used in the fracture toughness test and the loading rate was set to 1 mm/min. Black and white spray paint was applied in a random pattern to the surface of the specimens, and the specimens were loaded until they were ruptured. Bone surface strain analysis was performed using image correlation techniques and the changes were recorded in a digital image. In order to evaluate the effects of preservative treatment on the mechanical properties of bone, we categorized the specimens into 4 groups: the control group included the specimens that were submitted for testing immediately after machining and the preservation group comprised specimens that were analyzed after preservative treatment with different method (formalin, ethanol and physiological saline solution). A strain analysis performed using image correlation techniques allowed the visualization of the increased strain at the forward end of the slit of the specimens. The strain value at the forward end of the slit (the longitudinal direction of specimens) measured at the time of rupture in the control group was approximately 4 times larger than that in the formalin preservation group, thereby suggesting the embrittlement of bone organic constituents due to preservative treatment.