Invading pathogens may trigger overactivation of the innate immune system, which results in the release of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) and leads to the development of pulmonary edema, multiorgan failure, and shock. PIAS1 is a multifunctional and potent anti-inflammatory protein that negatively regulates several key inflammatory pathways such as Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). We discovered a ubiquitin E3 …
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