J. Neurosci. Res. volume 86, issue 3, P618-629 2008 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.21524 View full text
Ronald B. Tjalkens, Xuhong Liu, Brianne Mohl, Tyler Wright, Julie A. Moreno, David L. Carbone, Stephen Safe

Abstract: Reactive astrogliosis is a prominent neuropathologic feature of manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder caused by excessive accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the basal ganglia. Activation of astrocytes has been linked to neuronal injury in manganism resulting from overproduction of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and nitric oxide (NO), but the signaling mechanisms by which Mn regulates these factors remain poor…

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