The unceasing metabolic demands of brain function are supported by an intricate three-dimensional network of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, designed to effectively distribute blood to all neurons and to provide shelter from harmful molecules in the blood. The development and maturation of this microvasculature involves a complex interplay between endothelial cells with nearly all other brain cell types (pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons), orchestrated throughout embryogenesis and the first few weeks after birth in mice. Both the expansion and regression of vascular networks occur during the postnatal period of cerebrovascular remodeling. Pial vascular networks on the brain surface are dense at birth and are then selectively pruned during the postnatal period, with the most dramatic changes occurring in the pial venular network. This is contrasted to an expansion of subsurface capillary networks through the induction of angiogenesis. Concurrent with changes in vascular structure, the integration and cross talk of neurovascular cells lead to establishment of blood-brain barrier integrity and neurovascular coupling to ensure precise control of macromolecular passage and metabolic supply. While we still possess a limited understanding of the rules that control cerebrovascular development, we can begin to assemble a view of how this complex process evolves, as well as identify gaps in knowledge for the next steps of research.