2022
DOI: 10.2478/ijssis-2022-0009
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Abstract: The electro-optic effect is considered very important in optical communication systems. The small optical confinement factor is attributed to the weak overlap between the electric field and optical wave and hence the optical signal is not efficiently modulated. In this paper, the problem of the small optical confinement factor in the Mach–Zehnder modulator based on lithium niobate (LN) which is deeply studied. The data were analyzed through a proposed mathematical model to explain the relationship between the … Show more

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“…The small length of the modulator arm leads to a large relative refractive index difference and lower applied voltage V leading to a higher quality of modulation. The best modulation is achieved when the length of the arm is 2-3mm, if compared with 10 mm, as in (18) [44], [45] (see Figures 3(a The refractive index difference depends on a low applied voltage and large wavelength, as in ( 19) and ( 20) [38]. The refractive index can be changed due to the control of phase modulation where the phase difference induces between arms.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The small length of the modulator arm leads to a large relative refractive index difference and lower applied voltage V leading to a higher quality of modulation. The best modulation is achieved when the length of the arm is 2-3mm, if compared with 10 mm, as in (18) [44], [45] (see Figures 3(a The refractive index difference depends on a low applied voltage and large wavelength, as in ( 19) and ( 20) [38]. The refractive index can be changed due to the control of phase modulation where the phase difference induces between arms.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%