A modified observation system for the leveling process of a coated fluid is proposed, and the observation results are presented and compared with previous results. For the thermosetting waterborne coatings, the theory of Orchard, et al.,and ones based on it are not applicable and fail to give even a qualitative description. The theory of Overdiep was found to be reasonable. However, it was insufficient to predict the leveling performances of coatings without experimentation. Qualitatively, the original theory…
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