volume 29, issue 6, P723-733 1996
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00144-1
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Abstract: Although the movement of the leg during swing phase is often compared to the unforced motion of a compound pendulum, the muscles of the leg are active during swing and presumably influence its motion. To examine the roles of muscles in determining swing phase knee flexion, we developed a muscle-actuated forward dynamic simulation of the swing phase of normal gait. Joint angles and angular velocities at toe-off were derived from experimental measurements, as were pelvis motions and muscle excitations. Joint ang…

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