2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00322.x View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for most of the diseases leading in mortality. Nicotine dependence (ND), which sustains regular smoking, is now acknowledged to be under substantial genetic control with some environmental contribution. At present, however, genetic studies on ND are mostly conducted in populations that have been poorly characterized with regard to ND-related phenotypes for the simple reason that the respective populations were not primarily collected to study ND. The German multi-centre s… Show more

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“…The study was carried out in the framework of the German multicenter study: Nicotine: Physiological and Molecular Effect in the CNS (53,79). All subjects were randomly selected from the local general population of seven cities across Germany (Aachen, Berlin, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Erlangen, Mainz, and Mannheim) via official residents' registers and contacted by letter with an invitation to participate in the study.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
“…Across all study sites, the study was performed on the day of study inclusion according to the same standard operating procedure including regular monitoring with strict adherence to a fixed time table. After inclusion, subjects provided extensive demographical and smoking-related information and answered a battery of questionnaires on smoking-related behavior (for details, see SI Discussion), drug/alcohol consumption habits, and personality (79). Afterward, a neuropsychological test battery and an EEG investigation were performed (79).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
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“…Only ethnically German subjects were included. Details on the recruitment, testing procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria and characterization of this multicenter study on nicotine dependence and smoking-related behavior have been published elsewhere [26,27]. …”
Section: Methodsmentioning
“…Subjects with non-German ethnicity were not included. Further details of recruitment, testing procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and characterization of this multicenter study on nicotine dependence and smoking-related behavior have been described previously [23,30]. …”
Section: Methodsmentioning