The sources of fungal symbionts of insects are not well understood, yet the acquisition and assembly of fungal communities in mobile insect hosts have important implications for the ecology of migratory insects and their plant hosts. To determine potential sources of fungi associated with the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), we characterized the fungal communities associated with four different ecological compartments (insects, infested leaves, uninfested leaves, and soil) and estimated the contributions of each of these potential sources to the insect’s fungal microbiome. Results show that insect fungal community composition was distinct from and more varied than the composition of fungal communities in the environment of those insects (plants and soil). Among the sources evaluated, on average we found a surprisingly large apparent contribution from other congeneric S. frugiperda insect larvae (ca. 25%) compared to the contribution from soil or plant sources (< 5%). However, a large proportion of the insect microbiome could not be attributed to the sampled sources and was instead attributed to unknown sources (ca. 50%). Surprisingly, we found little evidence for exchange of fungal taxa, with the exception of a Fusarium oxysporum and a Cladosporium sp. OTU, between larvae and the infested leaves on which they fed. Together, our results suggest that mobile insects such as S. frugiperda obtain their fungal symbionts from a variety of sources, not limited to plants and soil, but including conspecific insects and other unsampled environmental sources, and that transmission among insects may play an important role in acquisition of fungal symbionts.