AbstractMicro-actuators have been developed that exploit the electrochemically induced volume change of the electro-active polymer polypyrrole. The strain regime is inherently complex at a physical level and whilst volume change can be estimated indirectly using, for instance, bending beam theory, such methods become unreliable for large deflections owing to limitations in the mathematical model. A new non-contact measuring technique based on laser micrometry is presented to characterize the timedependent exp…
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