Plant-based nutritional supplementation has been shown to attenuate and reduce mortality in the processes of both acute and chronic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Low-level systemic inflammation is an important contributor to these afflictions and diets enriched in phytochemicals can slow the progression. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on changes in glucose and insulin tolerance, performance enhancement, levels of urinary neopterin and concentrations of neurotransmitters in the striatum in mouse models. Both acute and chronic injections of LPS (2 mg/kg or 0.33 mg/kg/day, respectively) reduced glucose and insulin tolerance and elevated neopterin levels, which are indicative of systemic inflammatory responses. In addition, there were significant decreases in striatal neurotransmitter levels (dopamine and DOPAC), while serotonin (5-HT) levels were essentially unchanged. LPS resulted in impaired execution in the incremental loading test, which was reversed in mice on a supplemental plant-based diet, improving their immune function and maintaining skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity. In conclusion, plant-based nutritional supplementation attenuated the metabolic changes elicited by LPS injections, causing systemic inflammatory activity that contributed to both systemic and neurological alterations.