volume 30, issue 4, P613-633 2020
DOI: 10.1017/s1356186320000437
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ALI KARIMI

Abstract: Abstract Public opinion is formed by the information that the public consumes. The state, whether democratic or authoritarian, employs various media of communication to influence people's opinions and behaviours. In the nineteenth century, Afghan rulers would traditionally use force and religion to gain popular support and strengthen their authority. In the second half of the century, they started to use print technology to build their relationships with the public. The state's print, however, had to compet…

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