Animal Locomotion 2010
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-11633-9_33
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Abstract: The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurem… Show more

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Cited by 22 publications
(14 citation statements)
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References 12 publications
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“…However, the dominant parameter in the model is A, which defines the maximum aerodynamic lift coefficient that can be generated; a value of A¼ 1.64 is used, based on recent experimental data (Usherwood, 2009), which correlates well to the previous studies (summary presented by Ellington, 1984). Values of B¼1.135 and C¼ À1.05 are assumed appropriate for an arbitrary aerofoil (Leishman, 2006).…”
Section: Aerodynamic Modellingmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…However, the dominant parameter in the model is A, which defines the maximum aerodynamic lift coefficient that can be generated; a value of A¼ 1.64 is used, based on recent experimental data (Usherwood, 2009), which correlates well to the previous studies (summary presented by Ellington, 1984). Values of B¼1.135 and C¼ À1.05 are assumed appropriate for an arbitrary aerofoil (Leishman, 2006).…”
Section: Aerodynamic Modellingmentioning
confidence: 98%
“…Apart from angle of attack, varying the wing parameters listed above had little influence on wing performance. Usherwood 66 studied revolving dried pigeon wings and flat-plate models using force and pressure-distribution measurements for Re ≈ 50,000-108,000. The pigeon wing outperformed the flatplate model and both exhibited higher lift coefficients than for steady forward flight (translation).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This was done based on a dataset of 51 specimens encapsulating 37 non-avian and early avian genera whose wing length was either calculable directly from the fossils or reconstructed based on closely related taxa. We also assigned behavioural parameters such as flap angle to be at near the maximum possible value given the construction of the shoulder girdle in non-avians (Turner et al 2012), with flapping frequency and the coefficient of lift to be similar to extant avian values (Tobalske and Dial 2000;Jackson 2009;Usherwood 2009) to ensure that our reconstructions were capturing all possible taxa that could succeed in take-off. We refined out dataset to only those specimens with sufficiently large wings to show wing loading values of less than 2.5 g/cm2 (Meunier 1951) and specific lift values above 9.8 (Marden 1994) as both of these parameters have been shown to be reliable predictors of the flightless threshold in extant avians (Guillemette and Ouellet 2005).…”
Section: Literature Citedmentioning
confidence: 99%