Ionizing radiation causes not only targeted effects in cells that have been directly irradiated but also non-targeted effects in several cell generations after initial exposure. Recent studies suggest that radiation can enrich for a population of stem cells, derived from differentiated cells, through cellular reprogramming. Here, we elucidate the effect of irradiation on reprogramming, subjected to two different responses, using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model. iPSCs were generated from non-irradiated cells, directly-irradiated cells, or cells subsequently generated after initial radiation exposure. We found that direct irradiation negatively affected iPSC induction in a dose-dependent manner. However, in the post-irradiated group, after five subsequent generations, cells became increasingly sensitive to the induction of reprogramming compared to that in non-irradiated cells as observed by an increased number of Tra1-81-stained colonies as well as enhanced alkaline phosphatase and Oct4 promoter activity. Comparative analysis, based on reducing the number of defined factors utilized for reprogramming, also revealed enhanced efficiency of iPSC generation in post-irradiated cells. Furthermore, the phenotypic acquisition of characteristics of pluripotent stem cells was observed in all resulting iPSC lines, as shown by morphology, the expression of pluripotent markers, DNA methylation patterns of pluripotency genes, a normal diploid karyotype, and teratoma formation. Overall, these results suggested that reprogramming capability might be differentially modulated by altered radiation-induced responses. Our findings provide that susceptibility to reprogramming in somatic cells might be improved by the delayed effects of non-targeted response, and contribute to a better understanding of the biological effects of radiation exposure.