volume 40, issue 7, P621-625 2012
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2012.01.027
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Luigi C. Clauser, Riccardo Tieghi, Manlio Galie', Filippo Franco, Francesco Carinci

Abstract: Endocrine orbitopathy (EO) represents the most frequent and important extrathyroidal stigma of Graves disease. This chronic autoimmune condition involves the orbital contents, including extraocular muscles, periorbital connective-fatty tissue and lacrimal gland. The increase of fat tissue and the enlargement of extraocular muscles within the bony confines of the orbit leads to proptosis, and in the most severe cases optic neuropathy, caused by compression and stretching of the optic nerve. The congestion and t…

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