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Abstract: The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a very ambitious mission, aimed at the X-ray observation of the early Universe. This makes IXO extremely demanding in terms of effective area and angular resolution. In particular, the HEW requirement below 10 keV is 5 arcsec Half-Energy Width (HEW). At higher photon energies, the HEW is expected to increase, and the angular resolution to be correspondingly degraded, due to the increasing relevance of the X-ray scattering off the reflecting surfaces. Therefore, the … Show more

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Cited by 7 publications
(4 citation statements)
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References 20 publications
(41 reference statements)
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“…The application of the industrial well-known bending processes to the astronomical field is not straightforward because of the more demanding requirements in terms of shape and surface finishing accuracy of the final product. Even if successful examples exist [6], in the field of x-ray optics, for which the mirrors can accept shape error of only fractions of microns with respect to the theoretical profile, and surface micro-roughness of fraction of nanometers [7], their application is challenging. Nevertheless, since more than 10 years, slumping techniques are being evaluated for the production of next-generation x-ray telescopes that will combine large colleting area with high image quality and low system mass [8], [9], [10].…”
Section: The Hot Slumping Technology For Mirror Segments Productionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The application of the industrial well-known bending processes to the astronomical field is not straightforward because of the more demanding requirements in terms of shape and surface finishing accuracy of the final product. Even if successful examples exist [6], in the field of x-ray optics, for which the mirrors can accept shape error of only fractions of microns with respect to the theoretical profile, and surface micro-roughness of fraction of nanometers [7], their application is challenging. Nevertheless, since more than 10 years, slumping techniques are being evaluated for the production of next-generation x-ray telescopes that will combine large colleting area with high image quality and low system mass [8], [9], [10].…”
Section: The Hot Slumping Technology For Mirror Segments Productionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…From the geometrical optic formalism, the figure error due to this roughness is estimated in Gaussian approximation as ∼2 arcmin. 15 We also measured the micro roughness at less than 10 µm scale using an atomic force microscope. The obtained roughness was ∼1 nm at 1∼10 µm scale.…”
Section: Single-stage Opticsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This rules roughness amplification out in the stack. Even though the witness samples with silicon or glass substrates were not measured with the AFM, we can assume the initial silicon roughness to be 0.7 Å rms, i.e., typical of the pristine surface of commercial silicon wafers, [8] and that it is kept unchanged after the coating deposition. The same assumption suggests a value of 2 Å for the roughness of the D263 glass substrates, as known from an extrapolation of measurements performed at INAF/OAB on D263 samples.…”
Section: Preliminary Sample Analysismentioning
confidence: 99%