DOI: 10.1029/2004jd005467
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Abstract: Surface rain rate can be simply formulated with the sum of moisture and cloud sources/sinks. In this study the moisture sink comprises the local moisture change, moisture convergence (with an imposed vertical velocity), and surface evaporation, whereas the cloud source/sink comprises the local hydrometeor change since the cyclic boundary condition leads to zero hydrometeor convergence. The sources/sinks and their contributions to the surface rain rate are examined based on hourly zonal mean simulation data fr…

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