DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2016.02.030
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David Ferson, John Calhoun, Ian Lipski, Vijay Gottumukkala, Frederick Lang, Raymond Sawaya, Linda Chi

Abstract: Objectives:A key component of ERAS for different surgical patients relies upon techniques to minimise opioid use after surgery, because of several undesired effects associated with opioids. This is often achieved with coaxial analgesia or regional nerve blocks, which allow for early ambulation of ERAS patients. Recent studies demonstrated that patients undergoing craniotomies experience more postoperative pain than previously anticipated. Also, sedative effects of opioids are undesirable for monitoring of neur…

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