– The purpose of this study is to extend the classic country-specific advantage (CSA) – firm-specific advantage (FSA) framework by integrating an institution-based view of CSAs into the discussion of FSAs. In his classic CSA – FSA framework, Rugman suggests that successful multi-national enterprises (MNEs) are often built on the interaction between strong FSAs and strong CSAs at home. In the case of emerging market multi-nationals (EMNEs), he argued that strong CSAs were…
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