A cooling viscoelastic ice shell overlying an ocean develops stresses due to two effects: thermal contraction of the ice due to cooling and the expansion of the shell due to the ice-water volume change. The former effect generates near-surface compression and deeper extension; the second effect generates extension only. In both cases, stresses are smaller at depth due to viscous creep. The resulting combined stresses are extensional except at shallow (<1 km) depths in thin ice shells. For ice shells thick…
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