volume 29, issue 5, P577-581 1996
DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00137-9
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Abstract: The minimum mechanical power needed for an animal to maintain level flight can be estimated, as can the wingbeat frequency, from measurements of the animal's mass, wing span and wing area, and of the strength of gravity and the air density. Dividing the power by the frequency gives the work done per cycle, and dividing this by the muscle mass gives the specific work, meaning the work done in each contraction by unit mass of muscle. This in turn is the product of the average stress during shortening and the str…

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