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Cited by 19 publications
(8 citation statements)
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“…where m is muscle mass (g), y is the average angle of pinnation, q is the density of muscle tissue (1060 kg/m 3 ; Pennycuick, 1996), and l is the average fascicle length (mm). In the few cases in which fascicle angle or length measurements were unavailable for a particular muscle of a specimen, species or genus means were used for computing its PCSA.…”
Section: Pcsamentioning
confidence: 99%
“…where m is muscle mass (g), y is the average angle of pinnation, q is the density of muscle tissue (1060 kg/m 3 ; Pennycuick, 1996), and l is the average fascicle length (mm). In the few cases in which fascicle angle or length measurements were unavailable for a particular muscle of a specimen, species or genus means were used for computing its PCSA.…”
Section: Pcsamentioning
confidence: 99%
“…To calculate theoretical bite force, the PCSA of each muscle was calculated following Sustaita (). The PCSA was estimated as the muscle mass multiplied by the cosine of the average angle of pinnation, divided by the density of muscle tissue (1060 kg m −3 ; Pennycuick, ) multiplied by the average fascicle length (Sustaita, ). After being dissected, each muscle was weighed with a digital balance (0.001 g precision).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Bennett & Harvey, 1985b) variation and also face design constraints imposed by¯ight (e.g. Pennycuick, 1996). Accordingly, lineage-speci®c problems of brain design may be expected to produce lineage-speci®c adaptations of brain size, including the allometric relationship of brain size to body size.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%