The severe deterioration of performance for the lithium-ion battery(LIB) at low temperatures adversely restricts the feasibility and applicability of LIB for electric vehicle(EV) applications. Therefore preheating batteries to proper temperature is an essential function of an effective battery management system to improve the low temperature performance. A novel internal heating strategy applying stepwise sequences of charging current pulses and constant discharging current amplitude is proposed, based on the…
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