2015
DOI: 10.1162/isec_a_00212
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Soft Balancing in the Americas: Latin American Opposition to U.S. Intervention, 1898–1936

Abstract: In the aftermath of the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, scholars of international relations debated how to best characterize the rising tide of global opposition. The concept of “soft balancing” emerged as an influential, though contested, explanation of a new phenomenon in a unipolar world: states seeking to constrain the ability of the United States to deploy military force by using multinational organizations, international law, and coalition building. Soft balancing can also be observed in regional unipola… Show more

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Cited by 54 publications
(20 citation statements)
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“…They were also crucial to the Pan-American movement. Pan-Americanism has often been treated as a mere political instrument of the United States, but more recent scholarship on interamerican relations demonstrates that Pan-Americanism also provided a venue to negotiate and balance U.S. hegemonic aspirations (see Darnton 2013; Friedman and Long 2015; Scarfi 2016). We show that it also entailed a “social” component—addressing public health, education, and labor, among other issues—as early as the 1900s.…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…They were also crucial to the Pan-American movement. Pan-Americanism has often been treated as a mere political instrument of the United States, but more recent scholarship on interamerican relations demonstrates that Pan-Americanism also provided a venue to negotiate and balance U.S. hegemonic aspirations (see Darnton 2013; Friedman and Long 2015; Scarfi 2016). We show that it also entailed a “social” component—addressing public health, education, and labor, among other issues—as early as the 1900s.…”
mentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Partial influence, policy friction, and Latin American efforts to appeal to institutions, international law, and extrahemispheric actors to increase their autonomy are not so new. 87 However, they take place in a context of unequal power relations; that context has not disappeared. A century of asymmetry is not erased in a decade, especially when the material and social bases of this asymmetry remain strong.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Hey (2003c) asks whether the individual is more important in the foreign policy of small states than larger ones, given the lower levels of bureaucratization. In the study of Latin American foreign policy, for example, various authors have emphasized the outsized importance of presidentialism in foreign policy, as a result of size, institutional underdevelopment, or a political culture that emphasizes caudillos (Hey, 1997;Giacalone, 2012;Mora and Hey, 2003;Russell and Tokatlian, 2009;Cason and Power, 2009 Flemes and Wehner, 2015), or 'soft balancing' (Friedman and Long, 2015;Whitaker, 2010). Starting with Fox (1959), there has been considerable attention to whether small states can retain a degree of autonomy from the pressures of great powers.…”
Section: Let's Take This To a New Levelmentioning
confidence: 99%