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“…Depending on the conditions, heavy oil aqueous emulsions can present either a Newtonian or a shear thinning rheological behavior [51,53]. The droplet size distribution is a function of different parameters which are not independent with one another, in particular of surfactant type and concentration [40][41][42], pH of the aqueous phase [43], surface tension [25,32], mixing energy [25,42], ionic strength [25,42], temperature [29,40], chemistry of the natural surfactant of the crude oil [31,33], pressure [52]. Besides viscosity, the formation of a lubricating layer around the pipewall resulting from migration of droplets away from the pipewall due to the hydrodynamic conditions [50] has been reported.…”
Section: Application To Heavy Oil Transportationmentioning
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“…Depending on the conditions, heavy oil aqueous emulsions can present either a Newtonian or a shear thinning rheological behavior [51,53]. The droplet size distribution is a function of different parameters which are not independent with one another, in particular of surfactant type and concentration [40][41][42], pH of the aqueous phase [43], surface tension [25,32], mixing energy [25,42], ionic strength [25,42], temperature [29,40], chemistry of the natural surfactant of the crude oil [31,33], pressure [52]. Besides viscosity, the formation of a lubricating layer around the pipewall resulting from migration of droplets away from the pipewall due to the hydrodynamic conditions [50] has been reported.…”
Section: Application To Heavy Oil Transportationmentioning
“…To keep the viscosity of aqueous heavy oil emulsion below the required value of specification of pipelines transport (typically around 400 cP at ambient temperature), a maximum of 70 to 75% in volume of dispersed bitumen phase is acceptable. Above 70%, the viscosity becomes too high [39][40][41][42]. Viscosity of oil/water emulsions at different shear rates.…”
Section: Application To Heavy Oil Transportationmentioning
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“…It was found that the viscosity of invert oil emulsions after the phase inversion can decrease much more strongly than in dilution with light hydrocarbons. However, the water content in such emulsions reached 40-70% [13], which is undesirable. Indeed, the content of the aqueous phase should not be too high because water is an excess component in transportation and further technological processing.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning