Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is closely related to sarcopenic obesity(SO). Body composition measurement including body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneus adipose tissue, plays a key role in evaluating T2DM and SO. The weight reduction effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2(SGLT-2) inhibitors has been demonstrated. However, there are warnings that SGLT-2 inhibitors should be used with caution because they may increase the risk of sarcopenia. The effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on body composition in T2DM is inconclusive. In this work, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on body composition in T2DM.
PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMbase and Web of Science databases were searched by computer. All statistical analyses were carried out with Review Manager version 5. 3. Results were compared by weight mean difference(WMD), with 95% confidence intervals(CI) for continuous outcomes. A random effects model was applied regardless of heterogeneity. The I2 statistic was applied to evaluate the heterogeneity of studies. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plots.
18 studies with 1430 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. SGLT-2 inhibitors significantly reduced body weight(WMD:-2. 73kg, 95%CI: -3. 32 to -2. 13, p<0. 00001), body mass index(WMD:-1. 13kg/m2, 95%CI: -1. 77 to -0. 50, p = 0. 0005), waist circumference(WMD:-2. 20cm, 95%CI: -3. 81 to -0. 58, p = 0. 008), visceral fat area(MD:-14. 79cm2, 95%CI: -24. 65 to -4. 93, p = 0. 003), subcutaneous fat area(WMD:-23. 27cm2, 95% CI:-46. 44 to -0. 11, P = 0. 05), fat mass(WMD:-1. 16kg, 95%CI: -2. 01 to -0. 31, p = 0. 008), percentage body fat(WMD:-1. 50%, 95%CI:-2. 12 to -0. 87, P<0. 00001), lean mass(WMD:-0. 76kg, 95%CI:-1. 53 to 0. 01, P = 0. 05) and skeletal muscle mass(WMD:-1. 01kg, 95%CI:-1. 91 to -0. 11, P = 0. 03).
SGLT-2 inhibitors improve body composition in T2DM including body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, percentage body fat and fat mass reduction, but cause adverse effects of reducing muscle mass. Therefore, until more evidence is obtained to support that SGLT-2 inhibitors increase the risk of sarcopenia, not only the benefit on body composition, but also the adverse effect of the reduction in muscle mass by SGLT-2 inhibitors in T2DM should be considered.