Objectives. This study investigated the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and several factors, including pain assessments, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. This cross-sectional, single-center study enrolled 85 patients with RA. The variables investigated included demographic characteristics, the 28-joint disease activity score with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), pain self-efficacy questionnaire (PSEQ), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS). QOL was measured using the Japanese validated version of the European Quality of Life questionnaire with five dimensions and five levels (EQ-5D-5L). Results. The use of oral steroids and oral analgesics was significantly associated with low EQ-5D-5L scores (P<0.05). EQ-5D-5L score had a significant positive association with PSEQ (r = 0.414) and significant negative association with age, disease duration, DAS28-CRP, PDQ, and PCS (r = −0.217, −0.343, −0.217, −0.277, and −0.384, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that the use of oral analgesics and PSEQ were independent predictors of EQ-5D-5L score (β = -0.248, P<0.05 and β = 0.233, P<0.05). Conclusions. The use of oral analgesics by RA patients may influence their QOL, which, in turn, may affect their feelings of self-efficacy. Various pain management strategies, including surgical treatment, may be explored for the treatment of RA. Furthermore, the PSEQ may be a prominent part of the patient’s overall assessment.