The Routledge Handbook of Language Contact 2020
DOI: 10.4324/9781351109154-10 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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“…The proportion of speakers who regularly use the colonial varieties is small and limited to social classes with access to secondary and tertiary education (for French in Africa, see e.g., Mufwene, 2011 ). The natural evolution of European colonial varieties, including that of their prosodic systems, is therefore severely constrained ( Yakpo, 2020 , 133–134). By contrast, the creoles have been evolving without state-sanctioned standardization and are primarily spoken by urban working class and rural populations, many of whom have little formal education and limited exposure to the colonial varieties.…”
Section: The Idea Of Creole Simplicity Is a Chimeramentioning
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“…The proportion of speakers who regularly use the colonial varieties is small and limited to social classes with access to secondary and tertiary education (for French in Africa, see e.g., Mufwene, 2011 ). The natural evolution of European colonial varieties, including that of their prosodic systems, is therefore severely constrained ( Yakpo, 2020 , 133–134). By contrast, the creoles have been evolving without state-sanctioned standardization and are primarily spoken by urban working class and rural populations, many of whom have little formal education and limited exposure to the colonial varieties.…”
Section: The Idea Of Creole Simplicity Is a Chimeramentioning
“…The prosodic systems of creoles and colonial varieties (contact prosodic systems) have developed tone or stress systems in accordance with the linguistic factor of areal typology (dominance of tone vs. stress in the ecology), the cognitive factor of psycholinguistic dominance (recipient vs. source-language agentivity), and social factors in their specific linguistic ecologies (the demographic proportion and social stratification of speakers of tone and stress-only languages) ( Bordal Steien and Yakpo, 2020 ; Yakpo, 2020 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Socio-economic stratification (factors 4-5) is therefore a more relevant determinant of social entrenchment than speaker demography (factors 1-2) and group identity (factor 3) (see Yakpo, 2020). Soft social boundaries existed between Krio and resident populations in colonial West Africa (Aranzadi, 2016; Wyse, 1989).…”
Section: Social Entrenchment and The Outcomes Of Areal Contactmentioning
“…The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to add insights to the role of social factors in language contact and creolization, which are not yet fully understood (Yakpo, 2020). The second objective is to contribute to a more inclusive perspective on African areality that accounts for contact outcomes between all languages present in multilingual ecologies, including contact languages (see Güldemann, 2018, p. 510), and even European colonial languages (see Steien & Yakpo, 2020).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning