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(20 citation statements)

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“…from which one can estimate the apparent mean bubble length. For the present Reynolds number, the measured L r = 1.50 ± 0.01 agrees with other numerical or experimental studies (Wassen et al 2010;Lahaye et al 2014;Volpe et al 2015) of this flow configuration. From the v distribution in figure 5(b), we conclude that the mean wake is dominated by a large clock-wise recirculating motion.…”

confidence: 91%

“…Without curved appendices, steady blowing increases base pressure by approximately 5 %, reducing the drag by at most 3 % in the range C µ ∈ [0, 0.015], corresponding to blowing velocities V j /U o ∈ [0, 1.1]. This performance agrees with drag reductions obtained by previous studies with similar steady jet amplitudes in axisymmetric or square-back models (Freund & Mungal 1994;Wassen et al 2010;Krentel et al 2010). In the case of steady blowing, while no difference is measured up to C µ ∼ 7.5 × 10 −3 (V j /U o ∼ 0.55), the Coanda effect improves base pressure recovery at higher blowing velocities.…”

confidence: 88%

“…Furthermore, an elongated recirculation area (black solid line) is clearly visible. The obtained recirculation length L r = 1.15h (reported in Table 1) agrees well with previous studies [58,36,57]. The cross-stream velocity contour-plot shows the variability of the flow in the wall normal direction.…”

confidence: 90%

“…This tendency is inverted for the "moderate frequency" region St A ∈ [0.15, 0.6], where the drag decreases. Again, an opposite tendency is obtained for F D and p i which well agrees with experimental and numerical investigations of the literature [52,58]. The gray area in Figure 9 represents a positive drag difference, while the white area represents a negative drag difference.…”

confidence: 88%

“…They have been observed in the separated flows over the rear window of a notch-back vehicle (Lawson, Garry & Faucompret 2007) or past a three-dimensional double backward facing step (Herry, Keirsbulck & Paquet 2011). High degrees of asymmetry have also been obtained in experiments and numerical simulations of the flow past three-dimensional geometries despite the symmetry of the set-up (Lee, Paik & Lee 2009;Wassen, Eichinger & Thiele 2010); they might be the signature of a comparable instability. Analogous dynamics in the natural wake past the reference Ahmed geometry (Ahmed, Ramm & Faitin 1984) are also reported in Part 1 of this study (Grandemange, Gohlke & Cadot 2013b).…”

mentioning

confidence: 90%