Tyrosine phosphatase STEP (striatal-enriched tyrosine protein phosphatase) is a brain-specific protein phosphatase and is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we examined the impact of STEP on the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-like pathology in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Using OXYS and Wistar rats (control), we for the first time demonstrated age-dependent changes in Ptpn5 mRNA expression, STEP46 and STEP61 protein levels, and their phosphatase activity in the retina. The increases in STEP protein levels and the decrease of total and STEP phosphatase activities in the retina (as compared with Wistar rats) preceded the manifestation of clinical signs of AMD in OXYS rats (age 20 days). There were no differences in these retinal parameters between 13-month-old Wistar rats and OXYS rats with pronounced signs of AMD. Inhibition of STEP with TC-2153 during progressive AMD-like retinopathy (from 9 to 13 months of age) reduced the thickness of the retinal inner nuclear layer, as evidenced by a decreased amount of parvalbumin-positive amacrine neurons. Prolonged treatment with TC-2153 had no effect on Ptpn5 mRNA expression, STEP46 and STEP61 protein levels, and their phosphatase activity in the OXYS retina. Thus, TC-2153 may negatively affect the retina through mechanisms unrelated to STEP.