2019
DOI: 10.1590/1809-4392201804392
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Sexual dimorphism in the electric knifefish, Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Rhamphichthyidae: Gymnotiformes)

Abstract: Sexual dimorfism refers to morphological differences between males and females of a species. It may be a result of different selection pressures acting on either or both sexes and may occur in any sexually-reproducing dioecious species, including fishes. We analyzed 63 females and 63 adult males of Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni (Gymnotiformes) collected by us or deposited in museum collections. Sex was identified through abdominal dissection. We measured length from snout to posterior end of anal-fin, anal-fin le… Show more

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Cited by 9 publications
(5 citation statements)
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“…The remaining species were then tested for sexual dimorphisms using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) based on all morphological measurements, and species with at least weakly significant differences between the sexes (p < 0.1) were retained. This left 139 species in the data (Table 1), containing 53 arthropods (38 arachnids (Buzatto et al, 2014), 4 crustacean (Fernandes Martins et al, 2017;Sørdalen et al, 2020), 7 insects (Punzalan & Rowe, 2015)), 1 cnidarian (González-Espinosa et al, 2018), and 89 vertebrates (1 amphibian (De Lisle, Paiva, & Rowe, 2018), 2 birds (Hsu et al, 2014;Poissant et al, 2016), 6 mammals (Christiansen & Harris, 2012;Roseman et al, 2020), 8 osteichthyes (Ronco, Roesti, & Salzburger, 2019;Garcia & Zuanon, 2019), and 72 reptiles (Sanger et al, 2013;Massetti et al, 2017;Burbrink, 2019)).…”
Section: Data Sourcementioning
confidence: 99%
“…The remaining species were then tested for sexual dimorphisms using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) based on all morphological measurements, and species with at least weakly significant differences between the sexes (p < 0.1) were retained. This left 139 species in the data (Table 1), containing 53 arthropods (38 arachnids (Buzatto et al, 2014), 4 crustacean (Fernandes Martins et al, 2017;Sørdalen et al, 2020), 7 insects (Punzalan & Rowe, 2015)), 1 cnidarian (González-Espinosa et al, 2018), and 89 vertebrates (1 amphibian (De Lisle, Paiva, & Rowe, 2018), 2 birds (Hsu et al, 2014;Poissant et al, 2016), 6 mammals (Christiansen & Harris, 2012;Roseman et al, 2020), 8 osteichthyes (Ronco, Roesti, & Salzburger, 2019;Garcia & Zuanon, 2019), and 72 reptiles (Sanger et al, 2013;Massetti et al, 2017;Burbrink, 2019)).…”
Section: Data Sourcementioning
confidence: 99%
“…The majority of fishes are gonochoristic and have various sexually dimorphic characteristics in their secondary sexual characteristics 30 . Distinguishing characteristics for the morphological qualities of many teleosts have been documented, including body color, ornamental patterns, breeding tubercles on the snout, pectoral fins and scales, fin hooks, body shape, fin size and shape [31][32][33][34][35] .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…It includes female‐biased SSD (a situation where females are larger than males, e.g., Gambusia holbrooki , Orestias gloriae ) and male‐biased SSD (a situation where males are larger than females, e.g., Iranocichla persa and I. hormuzensis ); (ii) sexual colour dimorphism/dichromatism (SCD) which is represented by the differences in coloration of male and female individuals (e.g. members of the genera Aphanius , Aphaniops and Paraphanius ); (iii) sexual shape dimorphism (SShD) that deals with comparative analysis of shape between males and females using geometric morphometrics (GM) e.g., Caquetaia kraussii , a cichlid fish which displays cryptic morphological behaviour between sexes (Hernandez et al, 2022); (iv) sexual structural dimorphism (SStD) that it is represented by the differences in the presence or absence of a macrostructure, for example, clasper in male sharks and rays, gonopodium in male individuals of mosquitofish, large and numerous breeding tubercles in males of the cyprinid fishes of the genus Garra , differences in shape, size and relative position on the body of urogenital papilla (Esmaeili et al, 2017; Garcia & Zuanon, 2019), dentition may also be sexually dimorphic, with differences between males and females in number, shape and arrangement of teeth as seen in the ray Urotrygon microphthalmum (de Sousa Rangel et al, 2016) and differences in the dentition on the fifth ceratobranchial of males and females of O. gloriae (Vila et al, 2011), ovipositor in females of bitterlings (Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, et al, 2020), gill glands in mature males of Cheirodontinae or microstructure such as contact organ on scales and fins of male profundulids as described by Velázquez‐Velázquez et al (2022), bony hooks along unbranched and anteriormost branched rays of the pelvic and anal fins of male Tyttobrycon shibattai as reported by Abrahão et al (2019) and differences in the length, width and density of the dermal denticles on the pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin and pelvic girdle of mature females and males of the lesser spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Crooks et al, 2013); (v) sexual olfactory dimorphism (SOD) in which the olfactory organs of mature males can be very large with many lamellae, while females present smaller organ and with fewer lamellae, for example, olfactory organ of T. shibattai , a miniature characid species (Abrahão et al, 2019) and some siluriform catfishes; (vi) sexual glandular dimorphism (SGD) which is observed in mature males of some Characiformes and is usually known as hypertrophied tissues, caudal fin gland and caudal fin organ (see de Oliveira et al, 2012; Fukakusa, 2020; Malabarba & Weitzman, 1999). It has been suggested that some components of the gland secretions may be used as chemical signals, perhaps even pheromones, for communication between males or between the sexes, possibly related to courtship and insemination (see de Oliveira et al, 2012; Malabarba & Weitzman, 1999).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%