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Abstract: Sex differences in hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis activity are well established in rodents. In addition to glucocorticoids, stress also stimulates the secretion of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) from the adrenal gland. Neuroactive steroid metabolites of these precursors can modulate HPA axis function; however, it is not known whether levels of these steroids differ between male and females following stress. In the present study, we aimed to establish whether neuroactive steroid concentra… Show more

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Cited by 35 publications
(50 citation statements)
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References 95 publications
(134 reference statements)
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“…Several steroids are rapidly produced as a physiological response to acute stress, where they act as allostatic mediators to allow the body to adapt and cope with the stressor 1 . As well as the production of glucocorticoids (ie, cortisol in humans, corticosterone in rats and mice) following activation of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis, other steroids are also produced, such as deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone and their metabolites, with elevated levels detected in both the periphery and in the brain following acute stress 2‐4 . Steroids that exert rapid non‐genomic effects in the brain are collectively known as neuroactive steroids, 5 and they can originate from peripheral endocrine organs or are produced de novo via the action of steroidogenic enzymes such as 5α‐reductase and 3α‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α‐HSD) expressed within the brain 6,7 .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Several steroids are rapidly produced as a physiological response to acute stress, where they act as allostatic mediators to allow the body to adapt and cope with the stressor 1 . As well as the production of glucocorticoids (ie, cortisol in humans, corticosterone in rats and mice) following activation of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis, other steroids are also produced, such as deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone and their metabolites, with elevated levels detected in both the periphery and in the brain following acute stress 2‐4 . Steroids that exert rapid non‐genomic effects in the brain are collectively known as neuroactive steroids, 5 and they can originate from peripheral endocrine organs or are produced de novo via the action of steroidogenic enzymes such as 5α‐reductase and 3α‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α‐HSD) expressed within the brain 6,7 .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…99,100 Moreover, a recent study in mice showed that the stress-induced upregulation of ALLO and PREGN measured in the brain is higher in female mice. 101 Sex ratio was unequal across the 4 study groups. As women are known to have a greater range of ALLO levels due to elevated ALLO levels in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, the group difference between the PTSD + mTBI group and controls may have been in part driven by the higher percentage of women in the control group.…”
Section: Limitationsmentioning
confidence: 93%
“…The sympathetic system regulates ovarian E 2 secretion 47 , and ovarian aromatase expression peaks during proestrus 48 . Since plasma E 2 closely reflects brain levels 49 , such impairment in E 2 signalling within the brain of NMS females is likely. The inability of NMS females to augment E 2 in response to CO 2 during proestrus suggests that NMS reduced E 2 synthesis capacity and thus compromise the response to an acute challenge.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%