Semiconductor nonvolatile memories are presently implemented i n a variety of forms from the simple ROM t o the complex E2PROM. Perhaps the most innovative nonvolative memory element is the MOS floating gate structure. It was first introduced in the form of an electrically programmable read only memory (EPROM) at ISSCC 71. Operation of the EPROM memory structure is based on MOS avalanche injection of electrons to the floating gate. Charge retention has been demonstrated t o be in excess of 50 years, The first…
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