2016
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004458
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Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum

Abstract: BackgroundThe recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this ai… Show more

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Cited by 162 publications
(197 citation statements)
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“…Our results show two significant peaks-January to March and September to December-with the highest peak in March, suggesting a peak in the cases of leishmaniasis in March and a trough in September of each year. It is probable that the seasonality observed in the cases of leishmaniasis could be attributed to the abundance of sandflies (vector carrying the leishmania parasite) which vary between species, location and year of collection [51]. In the Mediterranean context, two peaks of species P. perniciosus were recorded in July and September in Tunis, Almeria, Algarve and Catania [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Our results show two significant peaks-January to March and September to December-with the highest peak in March, suggesting a peak in the cases of leishmaniasis in March and a trough in September of each year. It is probable that the seasonality observed in the cases of leishmaniasis could be attributed to the abundance of sandflies (vector carrying the leishmania parasite) which vary between species, location and year of collection [51]. In the Mediterranean context, two peaks of species P. perniciosus were recorded in July and September in Tunis, Almeria, Algarve and Catania [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…It is probable that the seasonality observed in the cases of leishmaniasis could be attributed to the abundance of sandflies (vector carrying the leishmania parasite) which vary between species, location and year of collection [51]. In the Mediterranean context, two peaks of species P. perniciosus were recorded in July and September in Tunis, Almeria, Algarve and Catania [51]. A tri-modal peak of P. tobbi was recorded in Cyprus and bi-modal peak was observed in Turkey while single peak of P. ariasi was observed in France and Georgia [51].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Phlebotomines are small (body size of 2-4 mm in length), delicate, hairy flies with distinctive long, slender legs [9][10][11][12][13]. Of the approximately 900 species estimated to exist, less than a hundred (including 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World [14]), belonging to Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia genera are proven or suspected vectors of human disease in the Old and New Worlds, respectively [15][16][17][18]. It is a rather difficult group to study due to the cryptic life of adults during the daytime and difficulties to find larval stages.…”
Section: Sampling Methods For Sandflies Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In France, Ph. ariasi has been found to be active from June to September, with its highest density identiied at the end of July [5,60,61]; however, after examining the physiological age of the insects, it was found that the highest proportion of calved females and natural infections with Leishmania occurred in August and early September. In tropical regions and notably in Colombia, we have found that the period of greatest risk corresponds to the rainy season.…”
Section: Contributions To the Knowledge Of Phlebotominesmentioning
confidence: 99%