2009
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Abstract: Several studies have shown that astrocytes release neurotransmitters into the extracellular space that may then activate receptors on nearby neurons. In the present study, the actions of adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS)-activated astrocyte conditioned medium (ADPbetaS-ACM) on cultured dorsal spinal cord neurons were evaluated by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp recording. ADPbetaS caused astrocytic glutamate efflux (43 microM), which in turn induced inward curren… Show more

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“…Stimulation of Ca 2+ signals in astrocytes can be achieved by activation of purinergic receptors that in the dorsal horn are widely expressed in these cells (Ho et al 1995; Kobayashi et al 2006). We thus first used BzATP, an agonist of purinergic ionotropic receptors, such as the P2X7, and metabotropic receptors, such as the P2Y1, that in spinal cord cultured astrocytes mediate Ca 2+ elevations, propagating Ca 2+ waves (Fam et al 2000; Gallagher & Salter, 2003; Suadicani et al 2006) and glutamate release (Zeng et al 2009). In hippocampal slice preparations, BzATP application was also reported to induce Ca 2+ ‐dependent glutamate release in astrocytes and SICs in neurons (Fellin et al 2006 b ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
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“…Stimulation of Ca 2+ signals in astrocytes can be achieved by activation of purinergic receptors that in the dorsal horn are widely expressed in these cells (Ho et al 1995; Kobayashi et al 2006). We thus first used BzATP, an agonist of purinergic ionotropic receptors, such as the P2X7, and metabotropic receptors, such as the P2Y1, that in spinal cord cultured astrocytes mediate Ca 2+ elevations, propagating Ca 2+ waves (Fam et al 2000; Gallagher & Salter, 2003; Suadicani et al 2006) and glutamate release (Zeng et al 2009). In hippocampal slice preparations, BzATP application was also reported to induce Ca 2+ ‐dependent glutamate release in astrocytes and SICs in neurons (Fellin et al 2006 b ).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
“…Ca 2+ elevations and Ca 2+ waves can be, indeed, triggered in spinal cord astrocytes by ATP, mainly through activation of P2Y1 and ‐2 receptors (Salter & Hicks, 1994; Idestrup and Salter, 1998; Fam et al 2000; Gallagher & Salter, 2003). In dorsal horn cultured cells, activation of astrocyte P2Y1 receptor has been recently shown to induce glutamate release from these cells and glutamate‐mediated slow inward currents in neurons (Zeng et al 2009). P2X7 receptors may also play an important role in propagating Ca 2+ waves, particularly when Ca 2+ elevations are evoked by a lowering of extracellular divalent cations (Suadicani et al 2006).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Regarding the DAergic system, migrating astrocytes performed essential roles in guiding long-term outgrowth of TH-positive fibres by stimulating both axonal elongation and branching of the neurites (Bergl€ of et al, 2007;Johansson and Str€ omberg, 2002;Takeshima et al, 1994). Furthermore, a number of studies indicated that the stimulation of the astrocytic P2Y 1 R (under physiological and pathological conditions) results in the release of both intracellular Ca 2þ (Fam et al, 2000) and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Zeng et al, 2008(Zeng et al, , 2009). The astroglial Ca 2þ signals in turn induce the secretion of ATP, thereby influencing neighbouring cells (Di Castro et al, 2011;Hamilton and Attwell, 2010).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Klf7 is believed to regulate cell cycle progression and be involved in neurogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, promoting the growth of axons and maintaining the normal function of the nervous system [ 13 , 14 ]. Meanwhile, klf7 is also associated with the development of olfactory sensory neurons [ 15 ]. Loss of klf7 results in apoptosis of TrkA + sensory neurons, showing decreased sensitivity to pain [ 16 ].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning