volume 42, issue 2, P549-558 2013
DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyt008
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Abstract: We show for the first time that mortality for middle-aged women is lower in the former East Germany than in the West. Prior studies have documented convergence and suggested improving living standards and medical care as mechanisms. We show that much of the convergence, and the cross-over, are attributable to smoking. The seeds for the female East-West mortality cross-over were planted before the unification, when the women now aged 50-64 adopted their smoking behaviours.

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