Abstract:In heart failure syndrome, myocardial dysfunction causes an increase in neurohormonal
activity, which is an adaptive and compensatory mechanism in response to the
reduction in cardiac output. Neurohormonal activity is initially stimulated in an
attempt to maintain compensation; however, when it remains increased, it contributes
to the intensification of clinical manifestations and myocardial damage. Cardiac
remodeling comprises changes in ventricular volume as well as the thickness and shape
of the myocardial …
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